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RTM Diagnosis & Laser Treatment Of Breast Cancer
What Is A Breast?
What Is A Breast?
Breast
A breast contains (1) glands (glandular tissue of the tubulo-alveolar type), (2) fibrous tissue connecting its lobes and (3) interlobar adipose/fatty tissue. The mammary gland is enclosed by subcutaneous tissue, not as a distinct capsule, but sending in many septa to support its lobules. The breast is a rounded eminence that lies between the skin and the chest wall. Its shape varies greatly in individuals and races and at different ages, being hemispherical, conical, variably pendulous, piriform or thin and flattened. It is largely composed of adipose tissue, except during lactation; its consistency, shape and size primarily depend on this. The glands inside the breast produce milk after a woman delivers a baby. Each gland is also called a lobule, and many lobules make up a lobe. There are 15 to 20 lobes in each breast. The milk gets to the nipple from the glands by way of tubes called lactiferous ducts. Milk distends the alveoli in the glands as well as the lactiferous ducts (one from each lobe) which converge to the areola and form beneath it variable lactiferous sinuses which may serve as reservoirs. 

Vascular System Of The Breast
The arteries supplying the mammary glands are from the thoracic branches of the axillary and from the internal thoracic and intercostal arteries.

The veins form an anastomotic venous circle "circulus venosus" at the papillary base. From this and from the glandular tissue, veins carry blood to the periphery to end in the axillary and internal thoracic veins.

Nervous System Of The Breast

The nerves are from the anterior and lateral cutaneous branches of the fourth to sixth thoracic spinal nerves which also convey sympathetic fibres to the mamma; however secretory activities of the gland largely controlled by ovarian and hypophyseal hormones. The papilla has a dense nervous plexus supplying many receptors, such as Messner's corpuscles and Merkel's discs and also free terminals; these are essential in signaling sucking to the central nervous system (vide supra).

Lymphatic System Of The Breast: Mammary Lymphatic Drainage
Lymphatic System Of The Breast: Mammary Lymphatic Drainage
Lymphatic Drainage of a Breast
The lymphatic system has a very well-developed and rich network of lymphatic vessels all over and around the breasts that drains into the lymph nodes of the sub-axillary zones. Lymph nodes are small, pea-sized tissular structures that act as filters and help clean the lymph, and therefore get enlarged when they happen to filter viruses and toxic substances.

Lymph vessels of the mammary gland start in a plexus in the interlobular connective tissue and walls of the lactiferous ducts, communicating with a cutaneous sub-areolar plexus around the nipple. The gland is also said to connect with a plexus of minute vessels on the subjacent deep fascia; this connection plays little part in normal lymphatic drainage nor in early spread of carcinoma (Turner-Warwick, 1959).

It offers an alternative route when the usual pathways are obstructed. Efferent vessels directly from the gland pass round the anterior axillary border through the axillary fascia to the pectoral lymph nodes; some may pass directly to the subscapular nodes. 

From the gland's superior region a few vessels pass to the apical axillary nodes, sometimes interrupted in the infraclavicular nodes or in small, inconstant interpectoral nodes. 

Axillary nodes receive more than 75 % of lymph from the gland, the remainder largely draining to the parasternal nodes from the medial and lateral parts of the organ; these vessels accompany perforating branches of the internal thoracic artery. Lymphatic vessels occasionally follow lateral cutaneous branches of the posterior intercostal arteries to the intercostal nodes.

Enlargement of the axillary nodes is frequent in malignant disease and infective processes affecting the upper back and shoulder, the front of the chest and mammary gland, upper antero-lateral abdominal wall or upper limb. 

In operations for mammary carcinoma, musculus pectoralis major, its deep fascia and surrounding muscles were usually removed "en bloc" because of the wide ramifications of its lymphatics. 

Axillary nodes, the sternocostal head of musculus pectoralis major and frequently musculus pectoralis minor were also removed to ensure complete removal of the affected lymphatics and nodes. some, particularly with more effective diagnostic techniques, now advocate less radical extirpation.
What Is Breast Cancer?
What Is Breast Cancer?
Breast tumor
Collections of cells that are growing abnormally or without control are called tumors. Tumors that do not have the ability to spread throughout the body may be referred to as "benign" and are not thought of as cancerous. Tumors that have the ability to grow into other tissues or spread to distant parts of the body are referred to as "malignant." Malignant tumors within the breast are called "breast cancer". Theoretically, any of the types of tissue in the breast can form a cancer, cancer cells are most likely to develop from either the ducts or the glands. These tumors may be referred to as "invasive ductal carcinoma" (cancer cells developing from ducts), or "invasive lobular carcinoma" (cancer cells developing from lobes).
 
Sometimes, precancerous cells may be found within breast tissue, and are referred to as ductal carcinoma in-situ (DCIS) or lobular carcinoma in-situ (LCIS). DCIS and LCIS are diseases in which cancerous cells are present within breast tissue, but are not able to spread or invade other tissues. DCIS represents about 20% of all breast cancers. Because DCIS cells may become capable of invading breast tissue, treatment for DCIS is usually recommended.
Modern Diagnosis of Breast Cancer
Microwave Radiothermometry Of Breasts: RTM Mammography
Microwave Radiothermometry Of Breasts: RTM Mammography
RTM Mammography is one of the latest methods of investigation of breast cancer. 

RTM Mammography is the radiothermometric examination of breasts whereby tumours, including cancer, are diagnosed.

The principle of diagnosis in RTM Mammography relies on the application of medical microwave technology in the radiothermometer for measuring the intensity of natural electromagnetic irradiation of internal tissues of the breasts. This intensity is proportional to the temperature of tissue. The change in temperature (thermal abnormality), that is the basis of early detection of breast cancer, may be caused by increased cancer cell metabolism. In this way, tumours and other breast pathologies can be screened out. 

It should be noted that thermal changes precede to the anatomical changes that can be detected by traditional methods such as ultrasound, mammography and palpation. Thus microwave radiometry is a very promising method for early detection of breast cancer.

RTM Mammography is an absolutely safe method as it uses harmless medical microwaves as a diagnostic tool. That's why it can be carried out on women of any age and as many times as needed.

On the contrary, usual radiographic mammography uses X rays that have harmful side-effects and is, therefore, advised to be carried out once in a year on female patients who are above 40 years of age.
 
RTM Mammograhy Of Breasts: normal
RTM Mammograhy Of Breasts: normal
RTM Mammographic Diagnosis Of Breast Cancer
RTM Mammography: Left Breast Cancer
RTM Mammography: Left Breast Cancer
RTM Mammography: Right Breast Cancer
RTM Mammography: Right Breast Cancer
RTM Mammography: Right Breast Cancer
RTM Mammography: Right Breast Cancer
RTM Mammography: Right Breast Cancer
RTM Mammography: Right Breast Cancer
RTM Mammography: Right Breast Cancer
RTM Mammography: Right Breast Cancer
Laser Treatment of Breast Cancer
The size, stage, rate of growth, and other characteristics of the tumor determine the kinds of treatment. Traditional treatment may include surgery, drugs (hormonal therapy, chemotherapy), radiation and/or immunotherapy.

Advances in medicine have enabled lasers to be used for eradicating tumours, including cancers, in human breasts. The proper use of lasers in the management of breast cancer is helping to cure breast cancer as well as preserve breasts at the same time. Photodynamic therapy with the application of lasers has proved to be effective in the cure of cancers in general and breast cancer in particular. Thus, women are able to avoid mutilation due to unnecessary surgical excision of their affected breasts. 

Laser treatment of breast cancer is a breast-preserving procedure and treatment results can readily be verified by RTM Mammography, Ultrasonography, usual radiographic mammography (if needed), etc.
RTM Mammography Of Breast Conditions Before & After Laser Treatment
RTM Mammography Of Breast Conditions Before & After Laser Treatment
The above images of RTM Mammographies show the breast conditions before and after treatment of breast cancer.

RTM Diagnosis shows the presence of cancer in the right breast in the first image and the second image shows full cure from breast cancer in the RTM imaging after laser treatment.

Laser treatment helps:
  1. cure breast cancer.
  2. prevent breast cancer from spreading/infiltrating into neighbouring zones, especially if treated at early stages thanks to early diagnosis by RTM Mammography.
  3. Avoid the loss of a breast from surgical ablative treatment and prevent body mutilation.
  4. Has proved to be a much better mode of treatment than other methods of treatment like chemotherapy and surgery, and is by far the best mode of treatment actually available for treating breast cancer.
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